fig. 1

Doctor of philological sciences, professor
Doctor of philological sciences, professor


(Full variant of work Dr. J.M.Mammadov
"Systematization of syntaxes"

is here ==>: DOWNLOAD.)

       This scheme (Fig.1.), which was discussed and continues being discussed in many scientific circles of Azerbaijan, is the main core of Dr. J.M.Mammadov's works on fields of linguistics. Some specialists consider that this system is that some when was searched (unresulted, as known) by structuralists and investigators of other school of linguistics and philosophy or at least some part of this system.
       The author draws up this system as the result of certain logic, ontologic and gnosiological observations in applying to some problems of linguistics. The main logical instrument is the rules of classification (division), the main gnosiological - psychological principle of "functional asymmetry of brain", ontological - parallelism (analogy) between some categories of linguistics and ontology.
        Analyzing the language (in content plan) from the beginning from logical point of view, the author opposes applying of universal principles of division at classification of linguistic categories - as it is done, for example, at classification of parts of speech, - and offers to adhere completely the principles of division, in accordance with rule the second division of the logic, according to which the members of the division exclude each other. Concretely, in case of parts of speech, the author doesn't recommend applying of three indications (lexical, morphological and syntactical) simultaneously in their classification, and offers to use this indications separately. In this case in syntactical point of view the parts of speech will be divided into syntactical and non-syntactical. He considers paramount (main) parts of speech to be in the first group, and the other parts of speech - among the second group. In syntactical context the second ones plays a role of noun.
        Continuing to analyze from this point of view, other categorizations of the linguistics also, the author found that the rules of logic are disturbed at classification of parts of speech, too.
        In result of these operation in Dr. J.M.Mammadov's work, pronoun and adverb is excluded from independent parts of speech, and object is excluded from independent parts of speech.
       PRONOUN: The author explains excluding of pronoun from the list of independent parts of speech: "according to the second law of division of logic the members of division have to exclude each other, that is to say they haven't to cross. But, relations of pronoun and other parts of speech is not equitable and alternative, because, features of pronoun crosses other parts of speech, being their subset". (The fragment of Dr. J.M.Mammadov's work in the text are in quotation marks and bold - Comm. of auth.). Firstly dividing all the main parts of speech into common and special, and then into abstract and correct aspects, the author found out lack of abstract-common aspect of each part of speech (see fig. 2).


       He concludes, "it is that very pronoun, which the science joined in one class, by tradition (by historical inertia or under the influence of authority of antic schools) separating from other parts of speech, and called pronoun". Besides, the author refers to the opinion of some well-known linguists (such as K.Burgman, K.Buller, U.Vainrah, Ch.S.Pirs, V.Kollinson, A.Nuren, O.Espersen, P.O.Yakobson, Sh.Bally, E.Benvenist, A.M.Peshkovski, F.Bruyno, L.V.Sherba, L.Bloomfield, Z.Z.Harris), which also hesitated in the problem of independence of the pronoun, treat with it a little watchful.
       In the system Dr. J.M.Mammadov pronoun is taken as a subset of other parts of speeches.
       ADVERB: The author explains the separation of adverb from the list of independent parts of speech, "it is the adverbalized variant of other parts of speech, that is to say, acknowledging it equality with other parts of speech, disturbs the second and fourth law of division of logic. Different from pronoun, adverb is not the subset but derivative of other parts of the speech. Its functions are fulfilled by other parts of the speech at their performance as methods of expressing of adverbial. That is to say other parts of the speech, performing as adverbials, automatically are transformed into adverb". The tendencies of identifying this process with conversion is observed in the work of Dr. J.M.Mammadov.
       In offered system the adverb is substituted by adverbalized variant of other parts of the speech.
       OBJECT: The author explains the separation of the object from the list of other parts of sentence: there must be only a component in predicative part of the speech, expressing the attribute of the information, corresponding to adjective of subjective part of the sentence. At that the author refers to:
       1) The law of division of logic ("contradicts to the third and fourth law");
       2) The principle of "Functional asymmetry of brain" ("only one component may be connected with right part of the brain");
       The different variants of object is considered here as:
       "...1) Derivative (derivation, "subordinate word") of other parts of the sentence;
       2) Variant of word-combination;
       3) Variants of adverbials;
       4) Joining of subordinate sentence with the main one in other construction;..."

        We have to mention that this part of the works is the weakest unit of the system, because the specialists think that the arguments of Mammadov on objects, scanty or obscure for linguists. But, the fact that some linguists (including Azerbaijani) defended this position in the middle of the last century, restrain the scientists of hard critic and makes some of them to reflect on it.
        Besides, the specialists think that the examples for the system are weak (especially the meaning was very distorted at translation).


       After all these operations the author groups parts of the sentence and parts of the speech in the following way:

Scheme 3

       That is to say, it is stated that "There might not be isolated, unrelated parts of speech and sentences there - These four parts of speech performs the role of expressing the parts of sentences, and parts of sentences are not expressed by anything except parts of speech. (that is to say, four parts of speech accepted here)". The tendency of identifying this process with conversion is observed in the work.
       After this, the author classifies each part of speech into four subset, conforming with conception of spatiality, time, causality (reasonability), and categoriality. He comes to this conclusion for the following reasons.
       "1) In traditional linguistics, some parts of the speech also often are unsystematically divided into sub-aspects. For example, aspect of noun, answering to the question "where?", spatial-temporal sub-aspects of adverb and adverbial etc.
       2) From the point of view of ontology, these four categories are the most common comprehension, embracing the whole reality. Logically it means that their linguistic prototypes also must be universal comprehension for all parts of speech, which express the characteristics of the reality,"

       As the result of all these operations the author got this system (see fig. 1). She concern only to the deep plan of language. Systematization of expressive plan of language, author leaves for others.


       These arguments are the LOGIC basis of the system. But, besides it, the author offers another interpretation of this system, from the positions of ontology and gnoseology.
       The author considers the fact, that four main parts of speech are equal linguistically to the categories of ONTOLOGY, the basis of the system, for example matter ( =noun), motion ( =verb), quality ( =adjective) and quantity ( =numeral).
       Author considers this fact "an additional argument in favour of exception of pronouns and adverbs from the line of parts of speech, as since unlike the rest paramount (here syntactical) parts of speech they have not ontological equivalent".
       According to the author GNOSIOLOGICAL basis of the system is the principle of "functional asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres" by making a certain model of thinking on the basis of it (in combination with its system) in the form of sequential dichotomous branching. Specialists consider here worthy of notice the moment that in this variant to each upper position of branch corresponds the category of linguistics having attributive tone, but to the lower one - denotative (in original variant the system is divided dichotomously. Transitive components are shortened here).
       It should be noted that, the variant described in Figure 1. is not the full view of the system. Author continues to divide all subsequent categories dichotomously and confirms that, "this branching goes on endlessly. And after each division the man becomes aware of all finer structures of the objective world under the law of "inverse ratio between the content and volume of notion". These operations occur subconsciously in the brain with a purpose of penetrating into the depth of essence".
       According to the author, "after some stage the system begins to repeat itself in a higher level. I.e. after the level mentioned in the scheme, there comes differentiation of the category only on general and special, abstract and concrete subaspects (pronouns appear in this stage). Then, each last category is divided into subaspects formed of parts of sentence, so from parts of speech. Word-formation processes are result of these crossings..."


       Basing on the fact, that "philosophical equivalent of these four parts of speech are universal categories for the all humanity, and simultaneously accepting that, logics of the mentioned system excludes abstraction of parts of speech from parts of sentence and casual-categorial relations", the author draws a conclusion that, "all the system components are universal, and it means that the system itself is wholly universal for the all mankind".
        At the end of the works, basing on the patterns of the mentioned system the author draws some conclusions with relate to some issues of linguistics, logics, ontology (concerning the reality structures), gnoseology (concerning the thinking mechanism) and technology (concerning machine translation and modeling of artificial intelligence of new generation on the basis of this model of thinking).


       In addition it should be noted that, conception of Dr. J.M.Mammadov was discussed at various times in different scientific institutions of Azerbaijan, including State institutes of higher education and Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan. It was published in different scientific editions of the republic. Appraisals are very ambiguous - from very positives up to direct objections. However, the conception as a whole is of interest for specialists, and it is important to be discussed in larger scientific audience.
       Besides it, Dr. J.M.Mammadov is also the author of some other works concerning the various fields of science (philosophy, logics, physics, psychology, literature, computer programming), as well defiant the interest of specialists.



The work of Dr. J.M.Mammadov "SYSTEMATIZATION OF SYNTAXES" is here:
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Original of a resource, in Russian is to address:

       This day, this material is available from more than 1000 (!) addresses, as since it was included in the section "Languages and linguistics" of all scientific sites of the world. With lists of the majority of them it is possible will familiarize (1) HERE and (2) HERE .

       This material may be translated in any language, may be issued in any edition (paper or electron) without permission of the author:
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       Dr. J.M.Mammadov thanks beforehand for any notes, offers and opinions.

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